Effect of student team achievement division (STAD) on academic achievement of undergraduate psychology students

Document Type: Original Article

Author

Associate professor of Educational planning and management. Faculty of Education, University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning (STAD style) on academic achievement.
Materials and methods: Sampling of the study consists of 80 (22-23 years old) students at a state university in Iran. Levels of pre-knowledge acquired by the students were evaluated by means of a self-developed instrument. A clear significant difference, as a conclusion, was detected in favor of the experimental group indicating the success of the STAD.
Results: it is found that cooperative learning helped students to develop some of their educational and psychological skills, because the cooperative activities encouraged students to interact freely and communicatively and consequently increasing their academic achievement in Developmental psychology and Physiological psychology courses to a higher level. But it seems conventional teaching hardly improves the teaching of concepts and academic achievement
Conclusion: in non-cooperative classrooms, in which conventional teaching are used faculty members often talk most of the time and only a few of the brightest learners have the opportunity to participate, usually by responding to the teacher. So, it is found that experimental group students taught by cooperative learning are more successful than control group students taught by conventional teaching.

Keywords


Andrusyk, D., & Andrusyk, S. (2003). Improving student social skills through the use of cooperative learning strategies. Unpublished Project, Chicago: Saint Xavier University.

Arendale, D. R. (2005). Postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs: annotated bibliography compiler. University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN.

Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Sikes, J., Stephan, G., & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publication.

Balfakih, N. M. A. (2003). The effectiveness of student team-achievement division (STAD) for chemistry teaching in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 605-624.

Bonwell, C. C. (1996). Enhancing the lecture: Revitalizing a traditional format. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 67, 31-44.

Boxtel, C., Linden, J., & Kanselaar, G. (2000). The use of textbooks as a tool during collaborative physics learning. The Journal of Experimental Education, 69, 57-76.

Brandt, M. Robe, C. (2002). Improving student social skills through the use of cooperative learning, problem solving, and direct instruction. Unpublished Dissertation, Chicago: Saint Xavier University.

Burcin, A., & Leman, T. (2007). Effect of cooperative learning strategies on students’ understanding of concepts in electrochemistry. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 5, 349-373.

Carroll, D. (1986). Use of the jigsaw technique in laboratory and discussion classes. Teaching of Psychology, 13(4), 208-210.

Cohen, E G., Brody, C, M., & Shevin, M, S. (2004). Teaching cooperative learning. Published by State University of New York Press, Albany.

Counseling Matters: Knowledge, Assistance, and Organizational

Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experiences and results. American Journal of Physics, 69, 970-977.

Dalton, S. S. (2008). Five standards for effective teaching, Jossey-Bass Teacher, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Dansereau, D. F. (1985). Learning strategy research. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Vol. 1, Relating instruction to research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dansereau, D. F. (1986). Dyadic and cooperative learning and performance strategies. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.

Dansereau, D. F., Hythecker, V. I., O'Donnell, A., Young, M. D., Lambiotte, J. G., & Rocklin, T. R. (1986). Technical Training: An application of a strategy for learning structural and functional information. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 217-228.

Daubenmire, P. L. (2004). A longitudinal investigation of student learning in general chemistry with the guided inquiry approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 880A. (UMI No. 3124889).

Dembo, M. H. (1994). Applying Educational Psychology in the Classroom (4th edition). New York: Longman.

Dohran, L., Holian E., & Kaplan D. (2001). Improving social skills at the elementary level through cooperative learning and direct instruction. Unpublished Dissertation, Chicago: Saint Xavier University.

Dollman, L. (2007). Improving social skills through the use of cooperative learning. Unpublished Dissertation, Chicago: Saint Xavier University.

Faryadi, Q. (2007). Enlightening advantages of cooperative learning. Unpublished Dissertation, UITM University, Malaysia.

Fazilah, I., & Zuraidah A. (2003). Promoting multicultural understanding through team building. In Proc. of the 2nd Peace as a Global Language Conference, Tokyo / Sept 27-28, 2003.

Gillies, R. M. (2004). The effects of communication training on teachers’ and students’ verbal behaviors during cooperative learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 41, 257-279.

Gillies, R. M. Boyle, M. (2008). Teachers’ discourse during cooperative learning and their perceptions of this pedagogical practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5), 1333-1348.

Hains, D. B., & McKeachie, W. J. (1967). Cooperative versus competitive discussion methods in teaching introductory psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 386-90.

Hamami, H. (2004). The relationship between the classroom management according to cooperative learning and academic achievement of mathematics. Unpublished Dissertation, Iran[In Persian].

Hanze, M. & Berger R. (2007). Cooperative learning, motivational effects, and student characteristics: An experimental study comparing cooperative learning and direct instruction in 12th grade physics classes. Learning and Instruction Journal, 17(1), 29-41.

Higbee J., Siaka, K., & Bruch P. (2007). Assessing Our Commitment to Multiculturalism: Student Perspectives. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 37 (2), 7-25.

Holliday, D. C. (2002). Using cooperative learning to improve the academic achievements of inner-city middle school students. Presented at the annual meeting of the American educational research association national conference. New Orleans.

Hollingsworth, A., Sherman, J., & Zaugra, C. (2007). Increasing reading comprehension in first and second grades through cooperative learning. Unpublished Dissertation, Saint Xavier University & Pearson Achievement Solutions, Inc.

Jacobs, G. (2006). Cooperative Learning and Second Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). New developments in social interdependence theory. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 13 (4), 285-358.

Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (2002). Learning Together and Alone: Overview and meta-analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 22, 95-105.

Johnson, D., Johnson, R., & Smith, K.A. (1991). Active learning: Coopera­tion in the college classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.

Jones, R. M. & Steinbrink, J. E. (1989). Using cooperative groups in science teaching. School Science and Mathematics, 89, 541-551.

Jordan, D., & Le Metaias, J. (1997). Social shilling through cooperative learning, Educational Research, 39, 3-21.

Kagan, S., Kagan, M., & Kagan, L. (2000). Science: Reaching standards through cooperative learning. Providing for all learners in general education classrooms, San Clemente: Kagan Publishing.

Keramati, M. R. (2007). The effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of mathematics and social skills. Journal of Psychology and Education of University of Tehran, 37(1), 39-56 [In Persian].

Keramati, M. R., & Hosseini, M. (2008). The effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physic. Journal of Psychology and Education of University of Tehran, 38(2), 147-166 [In Persian].

Keramati, M. R., & Zade Qolam, Z. (2009). Effect of cooperative learning (learning together technique) on academic achievement of physics course, ED-MEDIA 2009-World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Lamberights, R. (1988). Effects of task interdependence and peer tutoring in original and alternative jigsaw sessions. Paper presentation to the Fourth Convention of the International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education. Kibbutz Shefayim, Israel, July 5-8, 1988.

 Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1990). Progress in small group research. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 585-634.

Lightner, S., Bober, M., & Willi, C. (2007). Team-based activities to pro­mote engaged learning. College Teaching, 55(1), 5-18.

Mahran, M. A. (2000). The effect of using a suggested program on developing some of the composition writing skills of first year secondary school students through cooperative learning. Unpublished Dissertation,Assuit University.

McDonough, P. M. (2004). Commitment in College Preparation. In William G. Tierney, Zoë B. Corwin & Julia E. Colyar (Eds.) Preparing for College: Nine Elements of Effective Outreach. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Meyers, C., & Jones, T. B. (1993). Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Norman, D. G. (2005). Using STAD in an EFL Elementary School Classroom in South Korea: Effects on Student Achievement, Motivation, and Attitudes toward Cooperative Learning. Master’s Research Paper. Asian EFL Journal. University of Toronto.

Onwuebuzie, A. (2001). Relationship between peer orientation and achievement cooperative learning-based research. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 50-62.

Schlitz, M. E. & Susan, C. S. (2001). Using direct teaching and cooperative learning to improve the social skills of students labeled as having moderate cognitive delays. Unpublished Dissertation, Saint Xavier University.

Sherman, L. W. (1986). Formative evaluation, mastery grading, and peer directed small group discussions in an introductory educational psychology class. In J. B. Maas & D. A. Kleiber (eds.), Directory of Teaching Innovations in Psychology, Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Sherman, L. W. (1988). Computer-managed correspondence in large lecture courses. Paper presentation to Division 15 (Educational Psychology), 87th Annual Convention of the American Psychology Association. ERIC DOCEMENT ED 247-698.

Slavin, R. E. (1991). Educational psychology: Theory into practice (3rd edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Tan, G., Gallo, P. B., Jacobs, G. M., & Lee, C. K. (1999). Using cooperative learning to integrate thinking and information technology in a content-based writing lesson. (Xinmin Secondary School, Singapore). The Internet TESL Journal, 5(8), retrieved from: www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Techniques/Tan-Cooperative.html

Towns, M. H., & Grant, E. R. (1997). 7 believe I will go out of this class actually knowing something': Cooperative learning activities in physical chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34, 819-835.

Towns, M. H., & Grant, E. R. (1997). Cooperative Learning Activities in Physical Chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34, 819-835.