Validating emotional self-disclosure questionnaire on Iranian student

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

M.A student of general psychology, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

Abstract

The aim of current research was to investigate the factor Structure, divergent validity and reliability Of the Emotional Self-Disclosure Scale (ESDS). By employing a correlational design and test validation, 500 people were selected among all married university students of Bojnourd by employing multistage cluster sampling. They completed (ESDS). Investigating the validity was performed by employing exploration and confirmatory factor analysis and also divergent validity and validating through internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha and double split method. The Emotional Self-Disclosure Scale (ESDS) consists of 8 subscales, each containing five (5) separate items. The labels and items for each of these subscales are Depression, Happiness, Jealousy, Anxiety, Anger, Calmness, Apathy and Fear  Each and every item is coded so that: A=0, B=1, C=2, D=3, and E=4. The five items on each subscale are then summed, so that higher scores correspond to greater emotional disclosure for each type of emotion, as measured by the eight subscales on the ESDS. Confirmatory factor analysis shows a good fitness with 8 factor fundamental models and also one item from all subscales was not meaning full loading factor except jealousy which has two meaningful items. In addition produce a high Cronbach's alpha and double split coefficient for sub variables and the whole scale score. Seven factor structure of (ESDS) can perform as a useful scale in research and clinical settings because of its shortness, multidimensionality and having a good factor and divergent analysis.

Keywords


Aron, A. P., Mashek, D. J., Aron, E. N. (2004). Closeness as including other in the self. In Mashek, D. J., & Aron, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Closeness and Intimacy (pp. 27-42). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Byrne, B. M. (1994). Structural equation modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Sage.

Gilbert, S. J. (1976). Self-disclosure, intimacy, and communication in families. The Family Coordinator, 25 (3), 221-231.

Giles, D. C. (2002). Advanced research methods in psychology. New York: Routledge.

Harper, V. B., & Harper, E. J. (2006). Understanding student self-disclosure typology through blogging. The Qualitative Report, 11(2), 251-261.

Hemenover, S. H. (2003). The good, the bad, and the healthy: Impacts of emotional disclosure of trauma on resilient self-concept and psychological distress. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1236-1244.

Hooman, H. A. (2009). Structural equation modeling with LISREL application. Tehran: SAMT Publication [In Persian].

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76–99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kalyuga, S. (2007). Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 509–539.

Kito, M. (2005). Self-Disclosure in romantic relationships and friendships among American and Japanese college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 145(2), 127-141.

Kraus, R., Stricker, G., & Speyer, C. (2010). Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals. Academic Press.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

MacCallum, R. C., Brown, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). In MM Byrne & CM MacNeil (2003), Line Managers: Facilitators of Knowledge Sharing in Teams. Employee Relations, 25(3), 294-307.

Moreno, R. (2007). Optimizing learning from animations by minimizing cognitive load: Cognitive and affective consequences of signaling and segmentation methods. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 765–781.

Morry, M. M. (2005). Allocentrism and friendship satisfaction: The mediating roles of disclosure and closeness. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 37(3), 211-222.

Oswald, D. L., & Clark, E. M. (2003). Best friends forever?: High school best friendships and the transition to college. Personal Relationships, 10, 187-196.

Simon, H. (1967). Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Psychological Review, 74, 29-39.

Sprecher, S. & Hendrick, S. S. (2004). Self-disclosure in intimate relationships: Associations with individual and relationship characteristics over time. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(6), 857-877.

Sprecher, S., & Hendrick, S. S. (2004). Self-disclosure in intimate relationships: Associations with individual and relationship characteristics over time. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(6), 857-877.

Sternberg, R. J. (1988). The triangle of love: Intimacy, passion, commitment. Basic Books (AZ).

Stiler, G. M., & Philleo, T. (2003). Blogging and blogspots: An alternative format for encouraging reflective practice among preservice teachers. Education, 123, 789- 797.

Stone, B. (2003). Blogging: Genius strategies for instant web content. Boston: New Riders.

Stritzke, W. G. K., Nguyen, A., & Durkin, K. (2005). Shyness and computer mediated communication: A self-presentational theory perspective. Media Psychology, 6, 1-22.

Taylor, D. A., & Altman, I. (1975). Self-disclosure as a function of reward-cost outcomes. Sociometry, 38(1), 18-31.

Waring, E. M., Holden, R. R., & Wesley, S. (1998). Development of the marital self-disclosure questionnaire (MSDQ). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(6), 817-824.

Wasserman, E. (2005, winter). Pressures force the emergence of new journalism. Nieman Reports, 60. Retrieved March 1, 2005, from http://www.nieman.harvard.edu.